Dr Renuka Gupta M.S.FMAS. Fellowship Gynae- Oncology
Senior Consultant Gynae- Oncologist
Shree Aggrasain International Hospital
Cervical cancer is cancer of mouth of uterus. This is second most common cancer in Indian
females after breast cancer.
1.2 lakh new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed every year; 68,000 women die of this cancer
every year in India
Common symptoms: Foul smelling persistent vaginal discharge, any abnormal bleeding like
post-coital bleeding, inter-menstrual bleeding or post-menopausal bleeding, in advance stage
patient may present with urinary and bowel problems.
Cause: HPV (Human Papilloma virus) infection is responsible for 80-90 % of the cervical
cancer cases worldwide,
Risk Factors: Cervical cancer does not run in family; it does not transmit through genes.
Women with multiple sexual partners, early age at first coitus, early child birth, husband with
multiple sexual partners, women suffering from sexually transmitted disease are more prone
to get infection with HPV virus and later cervical cancer
How to protect yourself: vaccination and screening are the tools to protect.
Cervical cancer has a long natural history. Firstly, precancerous changes occur in cervix
which later develop into cervical cancer.
Screening can detect the precancer stage of cervical cancer and with the different modes of
treatment it can be cured in precancer stage, so we can stop the progression of precancer into
the cancer so it can be prevented by regular screening of married women and by vaccinating
girls before starting sexual activity
Screening methods: Several methods are available for screening like PAPS smear, LBC
(both are cytology tests where superficial scrapings of cervix are taken and sent for testing)
HPV DNA testing (it detects presence of HPV infection)
VIA, VILI and colposcopy which detect abnormal changes in cervix.
Treatment: There are multiple treatment modalities for precancerous stage in which disease
can be cured without removing uterus like cryotherapy, LEEP, cold knife conization.
Surgery (Radical hysterectomy with B/L pelvic lymph-adenectomy) is the treatment of
choice for early stage of cancer cervix.
In advanced stage, radiotherapy along with chemotherapy is given to treat the patient.
Patients needs prolong follow-up after completion of treatment for early detection of
Recurrence is very rare in early stage after completion of treatment, but are common in
advanced stage even after treatment.